The 2016 iteration of
Title 24, California’s
takes effect at the
beginning of next
year, and as Golden
State FMs likely
already know, it
imposes a host of
on any building
undergoing renovations or remodeling.
Residential buildings bore the brunt
of the energy reductions this year with a
requirement to become net-zero-ready,
with non-residential facilities likely
to follow in the 2019 iteration of Title
24, says Rick Miller, President of RNM
Engineering in San Luis Obispo, CA.
However, it may make financial sense to
begin renovating to the 2016 standards
now with an eye toward getting ready for
stricter rules in 2019. Facilities managers
outside California would also do well to
pay attention to Title 24, as the energy
mandate could spread to other states.
Can your building comply with these
four code updates?
1) Lighting Power Density
One of the most consequential changes
to the code involves reductions to the
allowed lighting power density (LPD) for
two of the three strategies that owners
can use to calculate indoor lighting power.
The complete building method covers the
entire facility and assigns allowed lighting
power density by building type; many
retain the same LPD assigned in the 2013
version, but some (including auditoriums,
convention centers and libraries) lost 0.1-
0.2 watts per square foot.
The area category method, on the other
hand, provides separate lighting power
allotments for different space types. For
example, an auditorium likely has specialty
lighting that requires a larger power draw
Can your building comply?
than a simple corridor, which is why auditorium areas are allowed to use up to 1.4
watts per square foot (a reduction of 0.1
watts from 2013), while corridors are only
allowed to use 0.6 watts per square foot.
Most changes in the category method
were reductions of 0.2 watts per square
foot or less, but FMs planning to remodel
lobby areas will notice a significant
change – main entry lobbies for non-hotel
buildings are restricted to 0.95 watts per
square foot in lobbies, a 37% reduction
from the 1.5 watts permitted in 2013.
The new code also makes significant
changes to outdoor lighting requirements.
ATMs, tunnels and bridges are no longer
exempt from lighting power allowance
calculations, so facilities professionals
who have these on their campuses will
have to account for these in any future
projects affecting outdoor lighting. Power
allowances for hardscape zones – parking lots, driveways, sidewalks, and other
paved areas – were reduced in nearly
every category, usually by at least one-third and in some cases by more than half.
The code also creates a new Lighting
Zone 0, used for undeveloped areas of
government-designated parks, recreation
areas, and wildlife preserves. Continuous
lighting is prohibited in this zone.
2) Lighting Controls
Tweaks to the requirements for lighting
controls were intended to make the code
easier to understand, says Philip Hall,
Director of Lighting Control Systems
and Code Compliance Programs for
Enlighted, a lighting control manufacturer
based in Sunnyvale, CA.
“A few things are simpler, but there
are still areas that don’t entirely make
sense,” Hall says. “You may need to call
the Title 24 hotline for verification on
some contradictions. For example, for
an area that’s 100 square feet or more
and uses more than 0.5 watts per square
foot, the 2013 version required a manual
on-off control with raising and lowering
capabilities, plus an additional control
with four choices, some of which were
required anyway in other sections. For
2016, manual control requires on-off,
multi-level, auto-shutoff, daylighting and
automatic demand response.”
One change includes a mandatory
20-minute time-out on occupancy sen-
sors, which aligns Title 24 with ASHRAE
90.1-2013’s time requirement. Multi-stall
restrooms don’t need full dimming and
only need one step between 30-70% in
addition to on-off capabilities.