ENERGY FACT: CFL LAMPS COST ABOUT 75% LESS TO OPERATE THAN
INCANDESCENTS AND LAST APPROXIMATELY 10 TIMES LONGER, ACCORDING
TO ENERGY STAR.
Essentially, the top quartile of scores from
the survey were used to set the EUI targets.
ENERGY STAR ratings have a similar scope;
the difference is that those are converted to a
scale of 0 to 100. The updated standard sets
specific EUIs, which are total energy in BTUs
consumed per square foot.
What other key changes are there in
the revamped standard?
For buildings larger than 5,000 square feet,
it requires a qualified person to be designated
as the energy manager who is responsible for
energy use in the building. That person must
develop and maintain an energy management plan.
The plan covers energy accounting, which
includes annual updates of energy use and
audit reports. It outlines ongoing commissioning efforts and documents the number
of occupants and weekly operating hours. It
also explains how the benefits of efficiency
are communicated to occupants and contains
an operations and maintenance program.
The standard identifies an extensive list
of potential energy efficiency measures that
building owners can use to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings based upon
ROI or lifecycle cost.
As the standard moved forward
through the public review process, were
there changes or additions made?
To keep it simple, the committee
initially restricted the standard to build-
ing site energy use that
could easily be estab-
lished from utility bills
and compared against
the target numbers,
recognizing that the
CBECS and RECS data
is site based. There were
concerns raised during
the public review about excluding source
energy and the impact of generating and
transporting energy to a building. As a
result, we added an option for adopting
authorities to revise the EUI tables based
on the source of energy.
The committee is continuing to address
the source energy issues as well as other
issues such as how to address combined
heat and power systems or district energy.
For building owners and facility
managers, what would you say are
key general principles that the stan-
Being knowledgeable about your
consumption is No. 1. As a building owner
and manager, you need to know how
much you’re using and where it’s being
used. Keep records and read your own
meter. Don’t only depend on the utility
to read your meter for you. More states
and municipalities are mandating energy
disclosure, which is something that you
can prepare for by becoming knowledgeable about your consumption.
BUILDINGS editor Chris Olson talks with
Rick Hermans about the 2015 update of
ASHRAE/ANSI/IES Standard 100, Energy
Efficiency in Existing Buildings. Hermans is
former chairman of the ASHRAE standards
project committee that guided the update.
It has been nine years since the origi-
nal publication of Standard 100. What
factors drove the 2015 update?
The original standard was not widely recognized or adopted. It addressed buildings
generally but did not have details for particular building types. The project committee decided that it would be more relevant if
the standard used performance metrics, an
approach that makes the standard different
from other ASHRAE standards like 90.1-
2013, Energy Standard for Buildings Except
Low-Rise Residential Buildings, which only
address new construction and are mostly
The updated standard has established
tables with energy use intensity [EUI] targets for 48 nonresidential building types and
5 residential types across 17 climate zones.
How were the EUI targets developed?
We got some help from the DOE and
the EIA (Energy Information Administration) by using data from the Commercial
Buildings Energy Consumption Survey
(CBECS) and Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Oak Ridge National
Laboratory helped produce the EUI tables.
Updated ASHRAE Standard Raises the Bar for Efficiency
in Existing Buildings
could be achieved without compromising
service or menu options.
The study’s recommendations would require McDonald’s to improve the efficiency
by up to 60% of a prototype restaurant designed in 2013. The gains would be achieved
by using system synergies developed in
the study to improve efficiency in kitchen
equipment and restaurant HVAC. The
remaining energy would be produced with a
300 k W photovoltaic system installed over
the building and some parking spaces.
By using the two strategies together,
the study’s authors, led by Ralph DiNola,
CEO of New Buildings Institute, estimate
that total energy costs could be reduced to
as little as 5-15% of what the average U.S.
restaurant currently spends on energy. Most
of the increased capital costs would involve
the on-site solar systems.
Looking to stay ahead of the
energy efficiency trend, McDon-
ald’s Corporation commissioned a
study that shows the net zero energy (NZE)
standard is achievable in quick-service
The study was designed to be applicable
globally but focused on three U.S. locations – Chicago, Orlando, and Washington,
D.C. and determined that the NZE standard
McDonald’s Investigates Feasibility of Net Zero Restaurants